1. Evolution and History of the Central Pine Barrens

1.1 Introduction

Ecosystems are dynamic. Organisms live and die, gene frequencies shift, populations migrate and plant and animal communities change. (Falk 1990). It is inevitable that the area known today as the Central Pine Barrens has undergone many changes over the past centuries and millennia. At various times in the past the Central Pine Barrens may have been much smaller or larger than it is today, or may have had a different distribution of natural communities and species. These fluctuations should in no way detract from the goal to "protect, preserve and enhance the functional integrity of the Pine Barrens ecosystem and the significant natural resources, including plant and animal populations and communities thereof." (E.C.L. Section 57-0121(2)(a)) .

The intent of delving into the history of the Central Pine Barrens is not to try to turn back the ecological clock to some arbitrary time in the past (if that could be done). Rather, an understanding the geologic, climatic, ecologic and historic forces that have created the present day Central Pine Barrens assists in efforts to fully appreciate, protect and preserve the pine barrens ecosystem and its natural resources. Such an understanding will guide the formulation of ecological goals, and guide ecologically sound pine barrens management practices.

The following discussion is divided into four time periods: The Pleistocene, the period from 12,000 years ago until European colonization, the period from European colonization through the 1800's, and the twentieth century.

1.2 The Pleistocene Age

Long Island is composed of deposits of sand, gravel and clay many hundreds of feet thick, lying upon bedrock of early Paleozoic to Precambrian age. Most of these sediments were deposited during the late Cretaceous Epoch, 60-100 million years ago, as discussed in the Geologic Overview. An arbitrarily selected starting point for this discussion of the evolution of the Central Pine Barrens ecosystem is the Pleistocene, which began about 1.8 million years ago.

During the Pleistocene there were repeated episodes of glaciation, in which vast, mile-thick sheets of ice scoured New England. Throughout the Pleistocene, periods of glacial advance alternated with warmer interglacial periods during which the ice retreated. The most recent period of glacial advance, the Wisconsin, ended about 12,000 years ago. Limits of the last two advances of glacial ice are marked by the hilly Ronkonkoma moraine which runs through the Central Pine Barrens, and by the Harbor Hill moraine along the north shore of Long Island. (Figure 2-1). Erosion of these morainal deposits as the glaciers melted away produced extensive outwash plains of sand and gravel. Pleistocene-age morainal and outwash sediments overlie the deeper Cretaceous-age sediments across most of Long Island. Sediments in the Central Pine Barrens area are especially coarse, and have given rise to the well-drained, droughty, nutrient-poor soils which favor the assemblage of plant species associated with the pine barrens. (see Pine Barrens Ecosystem Overview).

At the time of maximum Wisconsin glaciation, isostatic compensation owing to the weight of the ice apparently raised the portion of the earth's crust now submerged south of Long Island. (Conard 1935). As a result, sea level was approximately 100 meters lower than at present, and the coastline extended almost 150 km (93 miles) east of its present position. (Heusser 1979). Vegetation displaced by advancing glacial ice could have migrated to extensive offshore lands, as well as to the south.

Based on pollen and megafossils from New Jersey coastal plain deposits, it appears that the plant taxa associated with pine barrens, including pine, oak, and heath, have been present in the northeast since the early Cretaceous age. (Dorf 1952, Groot et al. 1961). Pine, spruce, fir and birch have been found in Pleistocene deposits from western Long Island (Sirkin and Stuckenrath 1975), and from sites just west of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. (Sirkin et al. 1970). Species are believed to be those found in the modern boreal forest.

1.3 From 12,000 years ago to the time of European Colonization

As the Wisconsin glacial ice retreated from Long Island at the end of the Pleistocene 12,000 years ago, plants and animals migrated northward following the melting ice. Coastal lands exposed by the lowered sea level would have provided a greatly enlarged migratory path. Tundra and spruce-fir boreal forest would have been the earliest vegetation established on the exposed sediments, followed by mixtures of hemlock, pines and hardwoods. The cool, moist climate that followed the end of glaciation was interrupted by a warm, dry period between 4,000 and 8,000 years ago; the climate then turned colder again. These climatic fluctuations, interacting with different soil types, topography, exposure to marine influences, and other disturbances would have created complex, shifting patterns of plant and animal distributions. Migration of species was not hindered by artificial barriers or human destruction of habitats.

Pitch pine has been present in the northeast for at least 10,000 years (Patterson, personal communication) and, as noted, pines, oaks and heath since the Upper Cretaceous. However, the assemblage of species associated with pine barrens plant communities may first have come together on Long Island during the warm, dry period 4,000-8,000 years ago, which would have favored drought tolerant vegetation. Pine barrens terrestrial plant species are adapted to coarse, droughty, nutrient-poor soils such as those found in central Long Island and southern coastal New Jersey. Pine barrens species also are favored by frequent fire, which eliminates competitors and maintains droughty, nutrient-poor (and flammable) conditions. (see Pine Barrens Ecosystem Overview). In order to create and maintain pine barrens vegetation, both droughty soil and fire are required. Thus, the discussion that follows examines the frequency and importance of fire in some detail.

The composition of pre-settlement vegetation may never be known with certainty. Post-settlement land use has so drastically altered the vegetation of Long Island that reliance must be placed on historical records and the limited archaeological and palynological (fossil pollen) evidence for vegetation reconstruction. In his archival 1983 manuscript, Turano pieced together historical information from a variety of sources. He concluded that much of the present Long Island Central Pine Barrens were oak forests prior to European settlement. Although this may be true, historical, palynological and ecological evidence suggest that at least part of today's Central Pine Barrens area supported pine barrens vegetation prior to settlement, as discussed below.

Pollen from sediments of Deep Pond, at the northern edge of the Central Pine Barrens, indicates that both pine and oak were abundant for the last 2,000 years; a general trend towards increasing importance of pitch pine, and a decline in white pine and beech, was apparent well before settlement. (Backman 1984). Additional palynological studies from other ponds in the Central Pine Barrens would be very valuable for reconstructing the extent and chronology of pine barrens vegetation.

The earliest known vegetation map of Long Island is the 1838 U.S. Coast Survey map. Sheet 77 of the Survey covers the Central Pine Barrens. The map appears to depict forest composition by using symbols for pitch pine, tree oak, dwarf pine, and scrub oak. (Windisch, personal communication). If Windisch's interpretation is correct, a vegetation pattern emerges which is similar to that found today, rather than the pre-settlement oak forests suggested by Turano. (Turano 1983). Windisch proposes that since the locations of pitch pine-scrub oak woodlands and dwarf pine plains (core pine barrens vegetation types) have remained stable since 1838 on the most xeric, fire-prone portions of the landscape, these vegetation types may predate European influence. Specifically, on the large Westhampton glacial outwash fan (site of the present-day dwarf pine plains), dwarf pines and scrub oak are indicated on the 1838 map, bordered by pitch pine-scrub oak woodlands to the south and east, surrounded by pine-oak forest. Similarly, the large outwash fan in the Horse Block Road area of Yaphank supported an extensive area of pitch pine-scrub oak woodland, surrounded by pine-oak forest. The smaller Center Moriches outwash fan supported pine-oak forest. On all three outwash fans, forest composition graded to oak or oak-pine dominance near the coast. Pitch pine-scrub oak vegetation also was noted near Rocky Point. Windisch has proposed the "fireshed" concept, in which vegetation patterns are related to fire-influencing landscape features in both the New Jersey and Long Island Pine Barrens. He suggests that pitch pine-scrub oak woodland types of vegetation may be naturally restricted to discrete, especially fire-prone portions of the regional landscape, presumably including the outwash fan areas. Such areas would be the most likely locations of pine barrens vegetation prior to European settlement.

The earliest written reference to the dwarf pine plains, located on the Westhampton outwash fan, is from 1804. (Dwight 1822). It is possible that the Long Island dwarf pines, with mostly serotinous cones, are a genetic ecotype adapted to frequent fire, as are the dwarf pines in New Jersey. (Givnish 1980, Good and Good 1975). Environmental selection of a genetic ecotype takes time; the evolution of a dwarf pine community covering thousands of acres would likely have required at least a hundred years, if not several centuries. The dwarf pine plains were well-established at the time of Dwight's travels in 1804. Thus if the Long Island dwarf pines are a distinct genetic ecotype, the pine plains probably pre-dated European settlement. Results of an analysis of the DNA of dwarf and tall pitch pines from Long Island, New Jersey and the Shawangunks are expected early in 1995, and may clarify the genetic status of the Long Island dwarf pines. (Colosi, personal communication).

The existence of at least some areas of fire-dependent pine barrens vegetation prior to settlement seems plausible since another fire-dependent plant community, the Hempstead Plains of Nassau County, apparently predated European settlement. The earliest references to "the plain" describe land where cattle grazed and corn was planted, and state that the grassland covered an area 4 miles by 16 miles, or 40,000 acres. (Denton 1670, Valentine 1976). This fertile plain was described as a ". . . broad upland meadow [like] a Western Prairie...with scarcely a bush or tree . . ." (Watson 1860). In the moist climate of the northeast, on rich soils, such a grassland could only have been created, and maintained free from trees and shrubs, by repeated, frequent fires over a long period of time. Harper pointed out additional botanical evidence that fire had long been a "natural" occurrence on the Plains (predating European settlement), including the presence of species that resprout from subterranean rootstocks, and the absence of plants with barbed fruits which are most effective if held on to the plant for months at a time. (Harper 1918). If such a fire regime could have existed on fertile soils in Nassau County, could it not also have existed on much droughtier soils just to the east, in Suffolk County? Prime describes a brushy plain of scrub oak adjoining the Hempstead Plains on the east, extending into a pine barrens area. It seems plausible that grassland fires could have swept into the adjoining forest, creating the oak brush plains (pitch pine scrub oak barrens) vegetation that Prime described. (Prime 1845).

Prior to European settlement, could fire have occurred often enough to create fire-dependent plant communities? Lightning ignitions are rare in the northeast, since most coastal thunderstorms are accompanied by heavy rain. (Pyne 1984). However, in the New Jersey Pinelands of more than one million acres, a few lightning ignitions occur each year, on average, smouldering until weather conditions dry out enough to permit open flames. (Windisch, personal communication). In the smaller Long Island Pine Barrens, a few lightning ignitions per decade might be expected. Once started, a fire in pre-settlement times could have burned for great distances through the unbroken, continuous forests. Perhaps in areas of droughty soils, just a few lightning-caused fires per century could have been sufficient to favor pine barrens species. In any case, lightning probably was not the only cause of fires; it seems likely that Native Americans set fires and altered the landscape in ways that also could have contributed to the development of pine barrens.

About 3,000 years ago, at the start of the "Early Horticulture" (or Woodland) period, changes in settlement and subsistence patterns resulted in a shift to increased utilization of coastal habitats. (Snow 1980; Patterson and Sassaman 1988). Horticulture (the maintenance of garden plots) apparently began at this time, and developed into agriculture (cultivation of fields) during the last millennium. Cape Cod supported relatively dense populations (Mulholland 1984), and Long Island may have also, although data are lacking. (Patterson and Sassaman 1988). Sedimentary charcoal studies which indicate the frequency of forest fires throughout New England suggest that "prior to European settlement, fires were most common in areas where, on the basis of archaeological site distributions, Indian populations were greatest...and their land-use practices most intensive." (Patterson and Sassaman 1988). The greatest amounts of charcoal were found in central-coastal Massachusetts, Cape Cod (Duck Pond) and Long Island ((Deep Pond) the only Long Island site reported by Patterson and Sassaman 1988). At Duck Pond, "abundant charcoal throughout the stratigraphic column suggests that fire has played an important role in maintaining pine-oak forests throughout the Holocene." (Winkler 1982).

Some increase in fire frequency associated with Native American habitation could have been due to accidental escape of campfires. However, there is evidence that many fires were deliberately set. For clearing fields, Native American women set fire to piles of wood set around the base of standing trees. (Cronon 1983). Crops of corn, beans and squash were planted among the standing dead trees; the same site could be used for eight to ten years before the soil lost its fertility. (Cronon 1983). Fire also was used to make travel easier by removing underbrush, and as a hunting aid. (Day 1953). Cronon believes that Native Americans used fire not merely to drive game, or attract game to specific areas for hunting, but to intentionally create a mosaic of successional forest types, open the canopy, and improve the growth of grasses and berries that provided food for game. (Cronon 1983). They would thereby have increased the food supply available for game, and supported the great abundance of elk, deer, beaver, hare, bears, turkey, grouse, and other species that impressed English colonists. Burning also may have been used to destroy plant diseases and the "fleas which inevitably became abundant around Indian settlements." (Cronon 1983).

Reports of fire are common from the time of the very earliest explorers, although the purpose or use of specific fires was rarely noted. Later, settlers were more specific in their observations. Thomas Morton wrote "[t]he Savages are accustomed to set fire of the Country in all places where they come, and to burne it twize a yeare, viz: at the Spring, and the fall of the leafe." (Morton 1632). This frequent burning was the cause of the open, park-like forest remarked upon by early settlers in southern New England. As William Wood observed, the fire "consumes all the underwood and rubbish which otherwise would overgrow the country, making it unpassable, and spoil their much affected hunting." (William Wood 1634).

Although Native Americans moved their villages seasonally, they reoccupied the same fixed sites for many years. Thus the area around the villages and planting sites would have been heavily impacted by intensive food gathering and cultivation, garbage accumulation, and cutting of firewood. Native Americans burned huge fires all night long, both during the summer and during the winter. (Cronon 1983). They needed to move to winter camps because the summer sites were stripped of fuel. (Cronon 1983, Day 1953). Such heavy use of firewood, combined with wildfires, could explain the "open plains 25 or 30 leagues in extent, entirely free from trees" reported by Verrazzano on his visit to Narragansett Bay in 1524. (Brevoort 1874, Wroth 1970). William Wood described similar treeless expanses a century later for Massachusetts Bay. (W. Wood 1634).

Thus it seems likely that Native American land use practices had a major impact on the vegetation of at least the localized coastal sites that they inhabited. Fires, land-clearing and fuelwood cutting would have opened up the forests and disturbed the soil, creating conditions favorable to the growth of Pine Barrens and grassland species. The landscape in the vicinity of settlements may have been a mosaic of forests and fields in varying stages of succession, created by shifting patterns of settlement and cultivation. (Patterson and Sassaman 1988).

Considering all the evidence, it seems plausible that at least some areas of pine barrens predated European settlement, possibly located on small, discrete areas of especially coarse, droughty soil, such as the Westhampton and Yaphank outwash fans. Intervening areas may have been oak forest or pine-oak forest, later converted to pine barrens by European land use practices such as fuelwood cutting, and increased fire frequencies. However, in the absence of conclusive evidence, the antiquity of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens remains unknown.

1.4 From European Colonization through the 1800s

Some of the earliest colonists cultivated the Hempstead Plains, where colonists were granted rights to the plains for grazing cattle and planting corn. (Munsell 1983). Cattle were imported for breeding as early as 1625. In Suffolk County, colonial development proceeded from east to west, especially along the shoreline near sheltered harbors where ships could safely moor. These harbors were the areas of concentrated development, and had economies based upon marine-dependent industries such as whaling and boat building, as well as agrarian industry that needed transportation access to distribute their agricultural products to New York City.

Central Suffolk County appears to have been sparsely settled. In 1691 a colonial governor described the middle of the island as "altogether barren." (Gabriel 1960). The name "barrens" was applied by settlers to any land that was not good for agriculture. The Carver-Plymouth soils are too droughty and nutrient-poor to support crops, but settlers may well have tried nevertheless. Successful agriculture is most likely to have occurred on the Haven and Riverhead soils (Figure 3-1), probably in the areas still being farmed today. Harvesting of cranberries and blueberries has long been important in the Pine Barrens.

The earliest specific references to extensive areas of pine barrens date from the late 1700's. George Washington noted the existence of an oak brush plains type:

April 22nd. The first five miles of the road is too poor to admit inhabitants or cultivation, being a low, scrubby oak, not more than two feet high, intermixed with small and ill-thriving pines. Within two miles of Coram there are farms, but the land is of indifferent quality, much mixed with sand. Coram contains but few houses. From thence to Setauket the soil improves, especially as you approach the sound, but it is far from being of the first quality, still a good deal being mixed with sand. (Munsell 1882).
Alexander Hamilton noted similar vegetation south and east of Setauket. (Hart 1907). In his travels of 1804 Dwight portrayed the south shore of Long Island as a:
vast level [plain], which extends from Canoe Place [Shinnecock Canal] to Jamaica: about eighty miles; and ccupies throughout this distance the southern half of the Island. It is not interrupted by a single hill. About twenty miles from its eastern limit it is covered with yellow pines; then a mixture of pines and oaks; then with oaks only; until within a few miles of Hempstead the pines make their appearance again. (Dwight 1822).
Other writers in the early 1800's also refer to yellow pine. (Dwight 1822, Dyson 1969). Bayles reported that:
[a]t the time this [rail]road was opened, about thirty years ago, this immense tract of unoccupied land was covered with a heavy growth of timber - yellow pine along the neighborhood of the railroad, and oak and chestnut among the hills, and varieties of oak on the southern borders. (Bayles 1873).
Yellow pine (Pinus echinata) is a southern species not found today on Long Island. It is unclear if these early writers were referring to yellow pine or to pitch pine (Pinus rigida), or to a mixture of both. Windisch and Patterson (personal communication) both believe these references were to pitch pine; "yellow pine" is a generic term used to refer to "hard" pines, as opposed to white pines. (Patterson, personal communication). Turano speculated that if indeed yellow pine had been present on Long Island 150 years ago, it is possible that it was eliminated by the frequent and intense wildfires of the mid 1800's. (Turano 1983). This seems unlikely, since P. echinata is today a major component of western and southern portions of the New Jersey Pinelands that were burned repeatedly in the 1700's and 1800's. (Windisch, personal communication).

Wood products were an economic resource from earliest times. The forests of pine, oak and hickory were used for cordwood, shingles, post and rail fences, and boat-building, while tar was produced from pine trees and barrel staves from oak trees. (Valentine 1976). The forests were cut over at least twice: once by the colonists and again by the British. (Valentine 1976, Prime 1845). Several towns became so concerned with the depletion of timber supplies that they prohibited tree cutting without permission from the trustees, and non-townsmen were specifically prohibited from harvesting forests. (S. Wood 1828, Valentine 1976).

From colonial times through the 1830's cordwood was an important source of fuel. It took an average of 40 cords of wood per year to heat a house. Wood was harvested and brought to coastal landings where it was shipped to New York City by water. In 1798 cordwood was two shillings [14 cents in 1994 dollars] per cord. By 1842 the wholesale price was $.50 per cord, bringing $2.50 retail. Later, in 1900, cordwood was sent to brick yards to fire the kilns. (Valentine 1976). According to Prime the woods were recut every 20-25 years.

The decades from 1840 to 1860 saw great changes in the agrarian and marine economies of Suffolk County. By 1840 coal was in general use and the cordwood industry badly hurt. (Valentine 1976). In 1844, the Long Island Railroad (LIRR) completed its New York City to Greenport line through the center of the Pine Barrens. From Greenport, travelers began the seaward leg of their voyage with the ultimate destination being Boston. The construction of the rail line forever changed Long Islanders' access to New York City. The once thriving whaling industry suffered serious setbacks with the discovery of gold in California in 1849 and petroleum in Pennsylvania in 1859.

Severe and extensive wild fires burned through the Central Pine Barrens repeatedly during the 1800s. These fires caused devastating economic losses. Tredwell's in 1912 reveals the following observation offered in 1853 that

. . . since the [rail]road was opened...there has scarcely been a day, from May to November, in which some portion of these forests have not been burned. Many of these fires destroy thousands of cords of cut cured wood awaiting transportation, and this local commerce has about ceased. (Tredwell 1912).
As noted by Tredwell, many of these fires may have been caused by sparks from the wood-burning engines of the Long Island Railroad. (Tredwell 1912). However, arson fires also were frequently set, apparently motivated by the New York State mandated wages for fire-fighters. (1895). By 1911 much of the Central Pine Barrens had been burned so badly that the middle of the island was untaxed because the land was unproductive.

It appears likely that post-settlement land use practices, including timbering, land clearing for agriculture and settlements, increased fire frequencies, introduction of exotic species, draining of wetlands, and construction of roads and railroads, caused regional vegetation change on Long Island. It is quite likely that the area occupied by pine barrens could have expanded during the 1700's and 1800's due to the combined effects of timbering, land clearing and repeated fire. As noted above, the extent of pre-colonial pine barrens vegetation on Long Island remains unknown.

1.5 The Twentieth Century

The New York City to Boston link of the Long Island Railroad was in use for less than a decade when a faster route was built along the coast of Connecticut. The Long Island Railroad then became a transportation link from New York City to Long Island. This change in transportation access changed the population settlement pattern of Suffolk County. The most dense populations were now found in western Suffolk County, the area closest to New York City. The LIRR enabled residential development to house people who worked in New York City. It also provided transportation for tourists who wanted to enjoy the marine sports and cool summers of Long Island's shore. The popularization of the automobile continued this residential development pattern, concentrating residential development in western Suffolk County while the agrarian economy continued in eastern Suffolk.

During World War One, Camp Upton was created for the training of soldiers. The 40,000 men at Camp Upton in 1917 doubled Suffolk's population. Camp Upton later became the campus for the Brookhaven National Laboratory. In parts of the Central Pine Barrens, towers were erected to transmit wireless communications to Europe.

The development of the Long Island Expressway from 1955 to 1972 impacted development in the Central Pine Barrens to a great extent. Until this time, general access to the Central Pine Barrens was limited due to lack of transportation links. The construction of the 70 mile, 4 lane, limited access expressway through the center of the Island decreased travel time to westerly employment destinations in Nassau County and New York City. This made the relatively cheap vacant land in the middle of Long Island attractive for residential development.

The population in the Central Pine Barrens almost doubled in each decade from 1960 to 1980, from 12,500 in 1960 to 43,000 in 1980 and by 1990 an estimated 57,000 people resided in the Central Pine Barrens.

The increased development of the Central Pine Barrens mirrored the development that was occurring throughout Suffolk County. A greater awareness of the impact of population growth and development on natural habitats and ecologic processes occurred as the population of the county grew and matured.

Increased residential developments in conjunction with the advent of modern fire suppression techniques, have greatly reduced the extent of fire in the Pine Barrens. Arsonists still cause many fires in the Pine Barrens, as apparently has been the case for more than 100 years. (Bayles 1873). However, these fires are aggressively controlled so that the extent of the areas burned is kept quite limited. With the removal of fire as a widespread ecological process, the vegetation of the Pine Barrens may be changing through natural succession into more oak-dominated forests in many areas.

In 1978 New York State formed a group to plan for preservation of 40,000 acres of woodlands between Yaphank and Riverhead, the Suffolk County Pine Barrens (SPLIA, 1978). Between 1978 and 1993 popular demand for a 40,000 acre preserve grew to support a 100,000 acre preserve approved by the State Legislature. On July 14, 1993, Governor Cuomo signed the Long Island Pine Barrens Protection Act into law. (For a more informative discussion of the events leading to and including the passage of the Long Island Pine Barrens Preservation Act see Volume 1).

1.6 Bibliography: Evolution and History of the Pine Barrens

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Ziel, Ron. Personal communications. Box 433 Bridgehampton, N.Y. Author of many books about the Long Island Railroad.