6. Status of Ecosystem Research in the Central Pine Barrens


6.1 Completed Research

There are several major studies and descriptions of Long Island pine barrens flora and communities:

1. pine barrens flora (Britton 1880);
2. plant community descriptions (Harper 1908);
3. plant community descriptions (Conard 1935);
4. the inter-relationships of heath, scrub oak and tree strata with light levels (Reiners 1965, 1967);
5. structure, production, diversity and biomass in the Brookhaven Pine Barrens (Whittaker and Woodwell 1968, 1969);
6. incidence of serotiny in pitch pine in pine barrens along the northeastern coastline, including Long Island (Ledig and Fryer, 1972); and
7. vegetational gradients in the dwarf pine plains. (Olsvig, Cryan and Whittaker 1979).

However in recent years only a few additional studies have been completed:

1. New York Natural Heritage Program's descriptions of pine barrens community types (Reschke 1990);
2. a flora and description of Long Island pine barrens coastal plain ponds (Zaremba and Lamont 1993);
3. environmental controls of plant species diversity in coastal plain pondshore communities (Schneider 1994); and
4. The Nature Conservancy's study of the fire history of the Central Pine Barrens, based on aerial photographs going back to 1938. (Windisch 1994).

Research on the Long Island Pine Barrens has been limited compared to the many studies that have been carried out in the New Jersey Pinelands. Hundreds of New Jersey studies are listed in the compendia of Buchholz and Good (1982) and Matlack, Good and Gibson (1986). These include papers on botany, plant and community ecology, fire ecology, geology and soils, hydrology and water chemistry, meteorology and zoology. Although much of the information on the New Jersey Pinelands can be applied to the Long Island Pine Barrens in at least a general way, more research studies that specifically address ecological and conservation issues in the Long Island Central Pine Barrens would be of value for future management decisions concerning publicly owned land within the Core Preservation Area.
 

6.2 Ongoing Research

Pine Barrens communities extend from Maine through New England, New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, extending as far south as West Virginia. Considerable research is now ongoing in many of these Pine Barrens areas, including Long Island. Regardless of location, much of this research will be directly applicable to the Long Island Pine Barrens.

6.2.1 The Nature Conservancy's Northeast Pine Barrens Ecosystem Program

The primary purpose of this program, based in the Conservancy's Eastern Regional office in Boston, is to coordinate research efforts and facilitate communication among Pine Barrens researchers throughout the Northeast. Researchers in both the Conservancy and academic institutions are participating.

Goals of the program include:

1. Identify, track and map significant pine barrens occurrences throughout the Northeast. Included will be the preparation of a geographic information system (GIS) map of all Pine Barrens occurrences.
2. Development (with New York State Heritage Programs) of a regional classification of Pine Barrens communities. Field surveys and documentation of Pine Barrens communities on Long Island have been included in this effort.
3. Identify sites that would most contribute to the conservation of diversity in the Pine Barrens and develop range wide ecological goals.
4. Plan for and undertake conservation activity and promote and coordinate compatible biological monitoring and mapping techniques.
5. Identify management, monitoring and research needs and carry out targeted research studies (effects of fire and mechanical disturbance, effects of smoke on air quality, ecological modeling).
6. Develop partnerships at local, state, regional and national levels with academic researchers, government agencies, conservation organizations, and others to advance conservation of North East Pine Barrens.
7. Develop resources and support to accomplish these goals.

6.2.2 Fire behavior and fire ecology

A major research effort is being carried out by Dr. William Patterson, University of Massachusetts (Amherst), funded by the Mellon Foundation through The Nature Conservancy's (TNC) Ecosystem Research Program. (Arlington, Virginia). Dr. Patterson has completed preliminary research at the Waterboro Barrens in Maine, in which past vegetation types were mapped and related to fire history and soils. The current research is entitled "Fire behavior, fire ecology and site relations in Northeastern Barrens ecosystems." (Patterson and White 1993). Objectives are to:

1. Identify and characterize factors most responsible for development and organization of individual community types within barrens ecosystems, and test and revise existing ecological models.
2. Test the importance of growing season fires versus dormant season fires.
3. Develop and test a fuel model that will predict fire behavior for a variety of barrens fuel types.

6.2.3 Fire facilitation hypothesis

Dr. R. Latham and Dr. A. Johnson of the University of Pennsylvania, are carrying out research in the Pocono Serpentine and Till Barrens. They are testing the "alternate steady states," or "fire facilitation" hypothesis, which will be experimentally tested by looking for possible significant nutrient losses following repeated fires.

6.2.4 Historic vegetation reconstruction in the Long Island pine barrens

The Long Island Chapter of TNC has contracted for this study with William Caplinger, a graduate student at the University of California at Davis. Caplinger is attempting to expand upon and refine Turano's 1983 archival study by incorporating additional sources of information. Caplinger hopes to be able to reconstruct Pine Barrens vegetation at four different time horizons, if possible going back to pre-settlement times.

6.2.5 Pitch Pine Community relationships in New York State and Long Island

Dr. Franz Seischab (Rochester Institute of Technology) and Dr. Jack Bernard (Ithaca College) have been studying pitch pine-dominated plant communities throughout New York for the last two years. In the summer of 1993, they sampled the soils and vegetation in several Long Island Pine Barrens sites, and have prepared a manuscript which has been submitted for publication. (Seischab and Bernard, unpublished).

6.2.6 Interactions between climate and radial growth of pitch pine

Annie Hagar, a graduate student at the University of Maine, Orono, is investigating climate-growth relationships throughout the northern range of pitch pine. She sampled several sites on Long Island in the summer of 1993.

6.2.7 Genetics of dwarf pitch pine

Dr. Joe Colosi (Allentown College, Center Valley, Pennsylvania), is comparing the genetic similarity of dwarf and tall pitch pine on Long Island, in the Shawangunks (New York) and in New Jersey using a DNA polymerase technique (RAPDS). Dr. Jessica Gurevitch, SUNY at Stony Brook, is beginning a study of the genetics of dwarf pines on Long Island, with an emphasis on evolutionary processes.

6.2.8 Community dynamics in ridge top pine barrens of the Shawangunk Mountains of New York

Michael Batcher of the Conservancy's Lower Hudson Chapter is currently developing a research program for the ridge top dwarf pitch pine community, and is developing conceptual community models.

6.2.9 Water quality of wetlands in the Long Island Central Pine Barrens

Baseline research on water quality in coastal plain ponds, possibly including relationships between nutrient levels and flora, are being carried out by Dr. Martin Schoonen and Dr. Glenn Richard of SUNY at Stony Brook, with some collaboration from The Nature Conservancy.

6.2.10 Wetland hydrology and ecology

Tim Simmons, with the Massachusetts field office of The Nature Conservancy, is carrying out Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded research on the hydrological regime of coastal plain ponds on Cape Cod, coordinated with the EPA, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), and other state and local agencies. An expected product of this research is a spatially detailed hydrological model capable of predicting changes in surface water levels in response to groundwater fluctuations. Ecological responses to hydrological fluctuations also will be modeled. These models will be directly applicable to wetlands on publicly owned land within the Core Preservation Area.

6.2.11 Lepidoptera in the Long Island dwarf pine barrens

Dr. Orland Blanchard completed a survey of the lepidopteran fauna of the dwarf pine plains in 1993, under a contract with the New York State Heritage Program. His data is currently being analyzed.

6.2.12 Survey of fens of New York State

The New York Natural Heritage Program sampled fens in New York State in 1989-1990, including the coastal plain poor fen at Cranberry Bog County Park. Data analysis is ongoing. The aim of the project is to evaluate classification of fen communities, and to examine relationships between fen vegetation, water chemistry, and other environmental factors. (Reschke personal communication).
 

6.3 Future Research Needs

Research in the Central Pine Barrens has been, and is being, carried out independently and with little formalized coordination by a variety of universities, conservation organizations, governmental agencies, private entities, and individuals. Efforts should be made to increase communication and cooperation among these various researchers. There are many universities and colleges, both on and off Long Island, that have the potential to make significant research contributions and to facilitate communication among researchers.

Research, monitoring and inventory in the publicly owned land within the Core Preservation Area could be directed towards the following objectives:

1. Set specific ecological goals for individual sites, and for publicly owned land within the Core Preservation Area as a whole.
2. Better understand the biology of species of concern (rare species, characteristic species, species of local interest).
3. Better understand the environmental factors that create and maintain Pine Barrens natural communities, including fire, cutting and other disturbances.
4. Better understand ecosystem processes and functions.
5. Better understand the past history and evolution of the publicly owned land within the Core Preservation Area.
6. Identify the most serious threats to the survival of species of concern.
7. Identify the most serious threats to the integrity of Pine Barrens natural communities.
8. Identify the most serious threats to the integrity and function of the Pine Barrens ecosystem.
9. Better understand the hydrologic regimes upon which Pine Barrens wetland ecosystems depend.
10. Better understand the effect of different land uses on groundwater quality.
11. Prioritize and guide management actions.
12. Guide and shape public policy and regulations affecting publicly owned land within the Core Preservation Area.

Key areas for future research include: performing baseline species analysis, population and community monitoring; studying the effects of surface and ground water quality and hydrology on wetland species and communities; determining the effects of ecosystem processes and disturbance regimes (e.g., cutting, clearing, and fire) on species and communities; and developing conceptual models of the processes controlling species and communities on the publicly owned land within the Core Preservation Area.

6.3.1 Biological Inventory

Although existing Natural Heritage Program data are good, there is no comprehensive biological inventory of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens. Consequently, additional inventories are needed to update existing Natural Heritage Program data. Inventory needs should be evaluated and prioritized. Specific needs may include:

1. Periodically updating existing Heritage inventories, and evaluating the need for comprehensive surveys for rare species (S1-S3, which includes all federally-listed rare species).
2. Identify suites of Pine Barrens species associated with each natural community type, and select indicator species that could be used to assess natural community condition.
3. Identify species of concern that may not be state rare species, and evaluate the need for an inventory of these species. Such species may include those species that are rare only on publicly owned lands within the Core Preservation Area but not elsewhere, species that have especially strong interactions with other pine barrens species, species critical to the maintenance of natural community structure and/or function, species of local interest, and species especially threatened by human activities in the Core Preservation Area (such as reptiles and amphibians).

6.3.2 Biological and environmental monitoring

Monitoring also should be an essential component of future research efforts. Baseline data gathering and on-going monitoring are essential if managers are to accurately assess the impacts of human activities, and track the results of management actions. Monitoring can provide a feedback loop of useful information.

1. Fire management effects: develop pre- and post-burn monitoring protocols that are comprehensive, and adaptable to different situations. A good initial approach might be to use New York Natural Heritage Program releve forms, with additional information including numbers of saplings and seedlings of tree species, duff thickness, and fuel loads.
2. Develop monitoring plans for selected rare species (including threatened or endangered species) and indicator species, such as damselflies, lepidoptera, and herbaceous plant species characteristic of grassy openings.
3. Develop (as needed) monitoring plans for species of special concern, regardless of rarity.
4. Evaluate the need for monitoring of selected natural community types (e.g., coastal plain ponds).
5. Develop a monitoring plan to track changes with time in the overall mosaic of natural community types found on publicly owned lands within the Core Preservation Area.
6. Establish permanent plots in a wide variety of Pine Barrens community types to monitor long term changes due to succession in the absence of fire, and to ascertain preburn conditions and monitor post-burn changes. Such plots could provide information that would be invaluable for refinement of the conceptual model of natural community dynamics. Data on three decades of community change would be obtained by surveying plots at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, and then comparing the results with published data concerning the same sites which is available from the 1960s. (Reiners 1965 and 1967, Whittaker and Woodwell 1968 and 1969).
7. Baseline water quality monitoring in coastal plain ponds.

6.3.3 Land use history and fire history

Understanding the history and evolution of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens will help in understanding the processes and conditions that created the Long Island Central Pine Barrens. This knowledge could influence present-day ecological goals, and would have direct implications for the kinds of appropriate and effective management actions necessary to maintain the publicly owned lands within the Core Preservation Area. Several important areas of studies are discussed below.

1. Historic vegetation reconstruction. As noted, this is currently being performed by W. Caplinger of the University of California at Davis. Information gained from this study would be utilized in conceptual community modeling efforts, and also could influence ecological goals for the publicly owned lands within the Core Preservation Area.

2. In depth fire history of selected areas within the Central Pine Barrens. An overall fire history study of the Pine Barrens, based on analysis of old aerial photographs (1938-present), was completed in October 1994 by A. Windisch, under contract with The Nature Conservancy. Windisch documented over 130 fires in or near the Central Pine Barrens, but could not precisely locate all of them, in part because the time intervals between available United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) aerial photography was as long as 14 years. He believes there may have been as many as 145 fires that are not yet documented. In order to more completely understand the effects of fire regime on vegetation, the study could be expanded using more closely spaced photography and additional documentation from old newspapers and other historical sources. Detailed information on the past fire history for specific sites will be analyzed along with vegetation reconstruction maps at approximately 10 year intervals for the last 60 years (the limit of aerial photography). This analysis should indicate the effects of different fire regimes in creating and maintaining natural community types, and will be a critical component of conceptual community modeling efforts.

3. Palynological (pollen grain) studies in cores of lake, pond and marsh sediments. Pollen grains and charcoal particles are recovered and identified from dated layers in cores of undisturbed sediments. Such studies could reveal changes in land use, fire frequency and vegetation composition over the last several hundred to several thousand years. To date, the only study that has been done in the Long Island Pine Barrens was Backman's study of a core from Deep Pond. (Patterson and Sassaman 1988). Other palynological studies on Long Island have investigated coastal or marsh environments. (Clark and Patterson 1985, Clark 1986a, Clark 1986b). Palynological studies (including pollen and charcoal) may be the best, or only, way to adequately reconstruct relationships between fire history and Pine Barrens species' abundances both pre- and post-settlement (up until the early 1900's).

4. Phytolith studies. Phytoliths are silica particles that form within plant cells. Phytolith size and shape can be used, under some circumstances, to identify the plants from which they came at least to the family or genus level, and sometimes to the species level. Identifiable phytoliths thousands of years old have been recovered from dry upland soils. If the soil profile can be dated, phytoliths can be used to reveal past land use and vegetation changes in a manner similar to the palynological studies. However, phytoliths have most successfully been used for grass species. It is not yet known if phytoliths from trees such as pitch pines or oaks can be identified to species, or if they occur in sufficient quantity to be useful. Thus initial research would be quite experimental, until methodological problems are resolved.

6.3.4 Conceptual ecological models of upland natural communities

The term "model" is used here in its broadest sense, namely that of an analogy used to help visualize something that can not be directly observed. Conceptual models, not quantitative mathematical models, are of the greatest interest in analyzing Long Island Central Pine Barrens conditions. Types of conceptual models include narrative, pictures, box and arrow diagrams, black box models, matrix models, computer flow charts, etc. (Jorgensen 1986).

Conceptual ecological models are useful tools that can:

1. be used as an instrument to survey complex systems;
2. be used to reveal system properties;
3. reveal weakness in our knowledge and thereby set research priorities;
4. test scientific hypotheses. (Jorgensen 1986).

The conceptual ecological model shown in Figure 5-1 is a pictorial model that illustrates general community relationships to variables such as soil texture, fire return interval, and elevation. Future research could expand the upland component of this model into a more detailed model (probably a box and arrow diagram type) that would include more detail about the effects of environmental factors in creating and maintaining individual community types within the Pine Barrens ecosystem. Key environmental factors appear to be soil texture, moisture, and nutrients, fire regime, cutting, clearing, frost and herbivory. The model should relate different communities to each other along temporal and environmental gradients and incorporate information about the effects of different types of fire regimes on community structure and composition.

A more detailed model for publicly owned lands within the Core Preservation Area would be invaluable in setting informed ecological goals, directing future research, guiding the development of an overall fire management plan for the Core Preservation Area and guiding the development of land management and conservation plans for specific sites within the publicly owned land in the Core Preservation Area. Results of initial experimental burns will be used to test and revise the model.

A preliminary version of similar conceptual model was developed for Maine's Waterboro Pine Barrens at a Nature Conservancy workshop in 1991. The model is being refined and tested by ongoing research at Pine Barrens sites in Maine, New York, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. (Patterson and White 1993, Helmboldt and Batcher 1994). Results of these modeling efforts may serve as a good, but incomplete, basis for a model for the publicly owned land within the Core Preservation Area. The Long Island Central Pine Barrens contains at least one plant community not present at any of the other sites being studied: the dwarf pine plains, a rare community type. In addition, the other sites being studied are fairly small ( 2,000 acres), so even if their average fire return interval is the same as on Long Island, these small sites will have had many fewer fires than the larger Long Island Central Pine Barrens.

Development of a Long Island-specific model will require information from a variety of sources. A GIS approach is suggested to synthesize the spatial information, similar to the approach being taken by Patterson and White. (Patterson and White 1993). Vegetation-environment relationships may be examined using transition matrices, redundancy analysis and/or canonical correlation analysis, again similar to the approach being taken by Patterson and White. (Patterson and White 1993). A model applicable to the entire Long Island Central Pine Barrens could be based upon in-depth studies of selected areas of publicly owned land within the Core Preservation Area.

Available information for the model:

1. A map of present vegetation types;
2. Conceptual model of the Waterboro Barrens in Maine. (Patterson and White 1993);
3. Windisch's fire history study of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens;
4. United States Department Agriculture-Soil Conservation Survey (USDA-SCS) soils map of Suffolk County;
5. Soil analyses and vegetation data (Seischab and Bernard, unpublished data; NY Natural Heritage Program); and
6. Historic vegetation reconstruction. (Caplinger, ongoing).

Additional studies which would be necessary in order to develop a model:

1. Possible refinement of the map of present Long Island Pine Barrens vegetation types prepared for this plan, by subdividing natural community types into variants such as pine-oak forest, oak-pine forest, etc.
2. Follow-up fire history studies for selected areas, using more closely spaced aerial photography to fill in information missing from Windisch's study.
3. Maps of past land use/vegetation types at 10 to 15 year intervals beginning with 1932 aerial photography (USDA). Required for ground-truthing the maps will be data on vegetation attributes within mapped community types (density, basal area, crown cover and age of overstory species, shrub cover within height classes, and herb cover). Some data are already available (see 6.3.3 above).
4. Data on environmental factors (including soil physical and chemical characteristics, soil moisture, microclimate, and topography.
5. Information on herbivory and the impact of pine loopers on pitch pine mortality.
6. Information on successional stages following land clearing in each of the upland vegetation type. This should come from maps of past vegetation types. (see 6.3.3 above).

6.3.5 Wetland ecology

1. General conceptual model for coastal plain ponds. A general conceptual model explaining how environmental factors influence plant community composition within Long Island coastal plain pondshores has been prepared by Schneider. (Schneider 1994). Additional work could refine and elaborate upon this model.

2. The sensitivity of aquatic flora and fauna to changes in water quality, nutrient loading, hydrologic or ecological regime could be further refined. Future study could include nutrient inputs in precipitation, groundwater and surface runoff. Information is available from New Jersey wetlands.

3. An experimental management program could be developed for white cedar swamps. Little has proposed an approach to cedar management that involves clearcutting or strip cutting, removal of slash, control of competing hardwoods, and control of deer browse. (Little 1950).

6.3.6 Wetland hydrology

1. Fine-scale wetland hydrologic models may be developed. Such models are an expected product of ongoing research on coastal plain ponds on Cape Cod. This research is being carried out by the Massachusetts Field Office of TNC, and is funded by the U.S. EPA (see above).

2. To further refine our understanding of natural water level fluctuations of publicly owned wetlands within the Core Preservation Area, and the relative roles of groundwater and runoff inputs, hydrologic studies that include water quantity and chemical budgets could be conducted at significant wetland systems. Such studies would be most appropriate for coastal plain ponds that have not been appreciably affected by human activities.

3. To further refine the understanding of the fate of chemical pollutants on wetland systems on publicly owned lands within the Core Preservation Area, hydrologic studies that include water quantity and chemical budgets could be conducted at impacted wetland systems, especially coastal plain ponds. Such wetlands should be those that appear to be receiving increased nutrient loading, but that still support rare natural communities, and rare plant and animal species.

4. To improve management programs for the Carmans and Forge Rivers, detailed delineations of the shallow groundwater contributing areas of these systems could be made.

5. Management strategies to address succession, exotic species and canopy shading within the vicinity of freshwater wetlands could improve current understanding of these systems.

6.3.7 Species ecology

1. Reproductive ages, sprouting ages and senescence of pitch pine and scrub oak. This information may aid in developing a detailed ecological model of the response of Pine Barrens vegetation to disturbance and fire.

2. Genetics of dwarf pitch pine: Is dwarf pitch pine a genetic ecotype? Such information may have implications for reconstruction of past vegetation composition, as well as management implications for the dwarf pine plains. Additional research may be needed to follow up on ongoing studies by Dr. Joseph Colosi (Allentown College, Center Valley, Pennsylvania), and Dr. Jessica Guervitch (SUNY at Stony Brook).

3. Effects of clearings on forest interior birds. There have been numerous studies of the effects on birds of fragmentation of intact forest into isolated "islands," but few, if any, studies of the effect of clearings within otherwise intact, contiguous forests. Such a study would be helpful to evaluate potential negative effects on forest interior birds of clearings used for management of game birds or grassland birds.

4. Insects. Preliminary surveys of pine barrens insects have been carried out (New York Natural Heritage Program), but the data base is still meager. More knowledge about the habitat and environmental requirements of lepidopterans, dragonflies and damselflies would be helpful in understanding these species. Essentially nothing is known about many other types of insects.

6.3.8 Oldfields/Grasslands

Equal percentages of these communities could be managed by mowing and prescribed burning, then allowing succession to occur. This may then allow conclusions to be drawn regarding the different growth intervals.

6.3.9 Roadsides/Firebreaks

Coordination of roadside mowing is considered a research need. By tracking the mowing intervals, patterns of regrowth may be discernible.

6.3.10 Food Plots

1. The addition or deletion of food plots, and the possibility of placing food plots along firebreaks, comprise a research need. This may permit an analysis of the growth of the food plot plants to be undertaken.

2. The importance of buffer areas between food plots and surface water systems is identified as a potential research need.
 

6.4 Bibliography: Status of Ecosystem Research in the Central Pine Barrens

Brewer, C. A., K. M. Doyle, J. J. Honaker, J. C. Krumm, W. F. J. Parsons, and T. T. Schultz. "The Sustainable Biosphere Initiative: A Student Critique and Call to Action." Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 73:1 (1992): 23-25.

Buchholz, K. and R. E. Good. Compendium of New Jersey Pine Barrens Literature. Division of Pinelands Research, Center for Coastal and Environmental Studies. Rutgers-The State University, 1982.

Clark, J. S. "Dynamism in the barrier-beach vegetation of Great South Beach, New York." Ecological Monographs 56 (1986a): 97-126.

Clark, J. S. "Coastal forest tree populations in a changing environment, southeastern Long Island, New York." Ecological Monographs 56 (1986b): 259-277. (William Floyd Estate).

Clark, J. S. and W. A. Patterson III. "The development of a tidal marsh: upland and oceanic influences." Ecological Monographs 55 (1985): 189-217. (Fresh Pond Marsh).

Conard, H. S. "The plant associations of central Long Island." Amer. Midl. Nat. 16 (1935): 433-516.

Helmboldt, K. and M. Batcher. "Comparative fire and land use history of the Albany Pine Bush (N.Y.), Concord Pine Barrens (N.H.), Montague Barrens (Ma.), Ossipee Barrens (N.H.) and Waterboro Barrens (Me.)." A research proposal funded by The Nature Conservancy's Rodney Johnson and Katharine Ordway Stewardship Endowments, 1994.

Huntley, B. J. et al. "A Sustainable Biosphere: The Global Imperative." Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 73:1 (1992): 7-14.

Jorgensen, S. E. Fundamentals of Ecological Modeling. New York: Elsevier, 1986.

Latham, R. E. and A. H. Johnson. "Fire-dependent and fire-resistant alternate steady states in plant communities driven by positive feedbacks between plants, ecosystem nutrient capital, and wildfire." University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA 19104. Proposal to the National Science Foundation, December 1993.

Little, S. 1979. "Fire and plant succession in the New Jersey Pine Barrens." In Pine Barrens: Ecosystem and Landscape, edited by R. T. T. Forman, 297-314. New York: Academic Press, 1979.

Matlack, G. R., R. E. Good and D. J. Gibson. "Second Survey of Current Research in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Division of Pinelands Research, Center for Coastal and Environmental Studies." 86-7147 SNJDEP Rutgers-The State University, 1986.

Olsvig, L. S., J. F. Cryan, and R. H. Whittaker. "Vegetational gradients of the pine plains and barrens of Long Island, New York." In Pine Barrens: Ecosystem and Landscape, edited by R. T. T. Forman, 265-282. New York: Academic Press, 1979.

Patterson, W. A., III and A. S. White. "Fire behavior, fire ecology and site relations in northeastern barrens ecosystems." A research proposal submitted to The Nature Conservancy's Ecosystem Research Program, funded by the A. W. Mellon Foundation. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington Va., 1993.

Reiners, W. A. Ecology of a heath-shrub synusia in the pine barrens of Long Island, New York., 1965.

Reiners, W. A. "Relationships between vegetational strata in the pine barrens of central Long Island, New York." Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 94 (1967): 87-99.

Reschke, C. "Ecological Communities of New York State." New York Natural Heritage Program, Latham, New York, 1990.

Seischab, F. K. and J. M. Bernard. "Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) communities on Long Island, New York," Department of Biology, Rochester Institute of Technology; Department of Biology, Ithaca College. Unpublished manuscript.

Schneider, R. L. "Environmental controls of plant species diversity in coastal plain pondshore communities." Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 1994.

Turano, F. "Long Island Forests: A Historical Perspective." 1983. Unpublished manuscript.

Watson, V. "Sustainability and soul searching in Old San Antonio." Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 72:4 (1991): 204-206.

Windisch, A. W. "A preliminary wildfire history for the Long Island Central Pine Barrens. New Jersey Natural Heritage Program." Submitted to the Long Island Chapter, The Nature Conservancy, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1994.

Whittaker, R. H. and G. M. Woodwell. "Structure, production and diversity of the oak-pine forest at Brookhaven," New York. J. Ecol. 57 (1969): 155-174.

Whittaker, R. H. and G. M. Woodwell. "Dimension and production relations of trees and shrubs in the Brookhaven Forest," New York J. of Ecol. 56 (1968): 1-25.

Zaremba, R. and E. E. Lamont. "The status of the Coastal Plain Pondshore community in New York." Bull Torrey Bot. Club 120 (1993): 180-187.