Central Pine Barrens Comprehensive Land Use Plan

Volume 2: Existing Conditions

Plan Volume 2: Version of 6/28/95
(Reprinted 8/96)

(For a complete pdf copy of Volume 2 (including scans of illustrations), click here.
For "Volume 1: Policies, Programs and Standards", see this link.)

Revision history:

January 13, 1995: Originally recommended by the Commission to the Towns of Brookhaven, Riverhead, and Southampton.

April 12 and 26, 1995: Amended by Commission resolutions following comments from towns.

June 12, 1995: Modified by the State Environmental Quality Review Act Findings Statement.

June 28, 1995: Approved in final form by the Commission, and signed into law by the Commission and the Governor.

May 1, 1996: Plan Volume 1 was amended by resolution of the Commission pursuant to ECL Article 57 provisions for Plan amendments. Plan Volume 2 was not altered.
 

Central Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission
P.O. Box 587
3525 Sunrise Highway, 2nd Floor
(Technical Services Building, Suffolk County Water Authority)
Great River, NY 11739-0587
 

Preamble to Volume 2

This volume, Volume 2: Existing Conditions, provides inventory, research, background, and factual information regarding the Central Pine Barrens region.  The chapters contained herein address a range of natural and human aspects of this three town area by describing both its current state and its historical evolution.
 
 

Contents

1. Evolution and History of the Central Pine Barrens
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The Pleistocene Age
1.3 From 12,000 years ago to the time of European Colonization
1.4 From European Colonization through the 1800s
1.5 The Twentieth Century
1.6 Bibliography: Evolution and History of the Pine Barrens

2. Geologic Overview
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Surficial Geology
2.2.1 Unconsolidated Deposits
2.2.2 Bedrock
2.2.3 Lloyd Sand Member of the Raritan Formation
2.2.4 Clay Member of the Raritan Formation
2.2.5 Magothy Formation - Matawan Group Undifferentiated
2.2.6 Monmouth Group
2.2.7 Gardiners Clay
2.3 Glacial Deposits
2.4 Recent Deposits
2.5 Topographic Relief
2.5.1 Slopes
2.5.2 Land Forms
2.6 Bibliography: Geologic Overview

3. Soils Overview
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Description of General Soils Associations
3.2.1 Haven-Riverhead Association
3.2.2 Plymouth-Carver Association, Rolling and Hilly
3.2.3 Riverhead-Plymouth-Carver Association
3.2.4 Plymouth-Carver Association, Nearly Level and Undulating
3.3 Soil Resources Associated with Environmentally Significant Resources
3.3.1 Prime Agricultural Soils
3.3.2 Soils Associated with Environmentally Sensitive Areas

4. Hydrology and Water Quality Overview
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Hydrogeology
4.2.1 Ronkonkoma Moraine and Outwash Plains
4.2.2 Surficial Silt and Clay Deposits
4.2.3 Glacial Clay Units
4.2.4 Upper Glacial Aquifer
4.2.5 Gardiners Clay Unit
4.2.6 Magothy Aquifer
4.3 Ground and Surface Water Hydrology
4.3.1 Precipitation
4.3.2 Recharge
4.3.3 Hydrogeologic Zones
4.3.4 Water Table and Depth to Water
4.3.5 Upper Glacial Aquifer Flow
4.3.6 Magothy Aquifer Flow
4.3.7 Water Supply Pumpage
4.3.8 Streamflow
4.4 Pond and Wetland Hydrology
4.5 Ground and Surface Water Quality
4.5.1 Precipitation
4.5.2 Groundwater Quality
4.5.3 Pond and Wetland Water Quality
4.5.4 River and Underflow Water Quality
4.6 Bibliography: Hydrology and Water Quality Overview

5. Ecosystems Overview
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Description of the Ecosystem
5.3 Ecological Processes
5.3.1 Vegetation
5.3.2 Wildlife
5.3.2.1 Vegetative Cover Type
5.3.2.2 Soil Moisture Content
5.3.2.3 Habitat Availability
5.4 Description of Ecological Communities
5.5 Natural Pine Barrens communities
5.6 Upland Communities
5.6.1 Pitch Pine-oak forest G4G5 S4
5.6.2 Chestnut oak forest G3G4 S4
5.6.3 Dwarf pine plains G1G2 S1
5.6.4 Pitch pine-oak-heath woodland G3G4 S2S3
5.7 Wetland Communities
5.7.1 Coastal plain ponds G3G4 S2; Coastal plain pond shores G3G4 S2
5.7.2 Pine Barrens shrub swamps G5 S3
5.7.3 Coastal plain Atlantic white cedar swamp G3G4 S1
5.7.4 Red maple-hardwood swamps G5 S4S5
5.7.5 Coastal plain poor fen G3? S1
5.7.6 Coastal plain stream G3G4 S1
5.7.7 Low salt marsh G4 S3S4; High salt marsh G4 S3S4
5.7.8 Salt panne G3G4 S3
5.7.9 Salt shrub G5 S4
5.7.10 Pine Barrens vernal pond (G3G4 S2 elsewhere in New York); Vernal pool (G4 S3S4 elsewhere in New York)
5.8 Human-created Communities
5.8.1 Successional old field G4 S4; Successional Shrubland G4 S4
5.8.2 Cropland/row crops G5 S5
5.8.3 Mowed lawn G5 S5; mowed lawn with trees G5 S5
5.8.4 Mowed roadside/pathway G5 S5
5.9 Occurrences of Rare Pine Barrens Natural Communities and Species
5.9.1 Communities
5.9.2 Plants
5.9.3 Animals
5.9.4 Upland species
5.9.5 Dwarf Pine Plains Species
5.9.6 Wetland species
5.10 Ecological Principles of Conservation Reserve Design
5.11 Bibliography: Ecosystems Overview

6. Status of Ecosystem Research in the Central Pine Barrens
6.1 Completed Research
6.2 Ongoing Research
6.2.1 The Nature Conservancy's NorthEast Pine Barrens Ecosystem Program
6.2.2 Fire behavior and fire ecology
6.2.3 Fire facilitation hypothesis
6.2.4 Historic vegetation reconstruction in the Long Island pine barrens
6.2.5 Pitch Pine Community relationships in New York State and Long Island
6.2.6 Interactions between climate and radial growth of pitch pine
6.2.7 Genetics of dwarf pitch pine
6.2.8 Community dynamics in ridge top pine barrens of the Shawangunk Mountains of New York
6.2.9 Water quality of wetlands in the Long Island Central Pine Barrens
6.2.10 Wetland hydrology and ecology
6.2.11 Lepidoptera in the Long Island dwarf pine barrens
6.2.12 Survey of fens of New York State
6.3 Future Research Needs
6.3.1 Biological Inventory
6.3.2 Biological and environmental monitoring
6.3.3 Land use history and fire history
6.3.4 Conceptual ecological models of upland natural communities
6.3.5 Wetland ecology
6.3.6 Wetland hydrology
6.3.7 Species ecology
6.3.8 Oldfields/Grasslands
6.3.9 Roadsides/Firebreaks
6.3.10 Food Plots
6.4 Bibliography: Status of Ecosystem Research in the Central Pine Barrens

7. Cultural Resources: Historic and Archaeological
7.1 Definitions of Terms
7.2 Overview of Cultural Resources in the Central Pine Barrens
7.2.1 Prehistoric and Native American Resources
7.2.2 Historic and Cultural Resources
7.2.3 List of Historic Resources within Brookhaven
7.2.4 List of Historic Resources within Riverhead
7.2.5 List of Historic Resources within Southampton
7.2.6 Central Pine Barrens Sites Listed on the National Register
7.2.7 Existing Public and Private Programs

8. Scenic Resources
8.1 Environmental Conservation Law Provisions Regarding Scenic Resources
8.2 Definition and Identification of Scenic Resources
8.3 Functions of Scenic Resources
8.4 Inventory Methodology
8.5 Scenic Resource Inventory for the Central Pine Barrens
8.6 Scenic Resources Issues Analysis

9. Physical Data
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Historic and Current Population
9.2.1 1990 Population Estimates
9.2.2 1993 Population Estimates
9.3 Population Density
9.4 Housing
9.4.1 Multi-Unit Housing
9.4.2 Seasonal Housing
9.4.3 Housing Value
9.5 Income
9.6 Public Administrative Boundaries - Municipal, School District and other boundaries
9.7 Land Use within the Central Pine Barrens
9.7.1 Core and Compatible Growth Areas
9.7.2 Vacant Land Analysis
9.8 Infrastructure
9.8.1 Transportation
9.8.2 Survey of Existing Thoroughfares
9.8.3 Traffic Analysis
9.8.4 Currently Proposed Suffolk County Department of Public Works Road Improvements (SCDPW)
9.8.5 Potential Areas of Traffic Concern
9.8.6 Sewage Treatment Facilities in the Central Pine Barrens
9.9 Bibliography: Physical Data

10. Land Protection Strategies
10.1 Land Protection Mechanisms
10.2 Land Protection Actions
10.2.1 Voluntary Actions
10.2.2 Direct Acquisition Mechanisms
10.2.3 Tax Incentives for Conservation
10.2.4 Land Use and Regulatory Techniques
10.2.5 Financing Land Acquisition
10.3 Land Acquisitions Programs of New York State and Suffolk County
10.3.1 New York State
10.3.2 Suffolk County

11. Field Management Status
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Town of Brookhaven
11.3 Town of Riverhead
11.4 Town of Southampton
11.5 Suffolk County
11.5.1 Suffolk County Nature Preserve
11.5.2 Identified Concerns of the Parks Department
11.5.3 Cooperative Agreements
11.6 New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation (NYSOPRHP)
11.7 New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC)
11.8 United States Department of Defense
11.9 United States Department of Energy

12. Selected Laws Pertinent to the Central Pine Barrens
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Federal Laws
12.3 New York State Laws
12.4 Land Use Regulations: Local Land Use Controls
12.4.1 History of the Suffolk County Pine Barrens Review Commission
12.4.2 Suffolk County Laws
12.5 Town Laws Summarized
12.5.1 Brookhaven Town
12.5.2 Riverhead
12.5.3 Southampton Town
12.6 Bibliography: Selected Laws Pertinent to the Central Pine Barrens

13. Public Participation and Community Outreach
13.1 Overview
13.2 Introduction
13.3 Review of Meetings
13.3.1 Core Preservation Area Landowners
13.3.2 Community Meetings
13.3.3 Public Briefing Sessions
13.3.4 Community Design Workshops
13.3.5 Expert Panel Meetings
13.3.6 Meeting Summary

14. Suggested Design Guidelines for Pine Barrens Credit Use Areas
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Residential Overlay Districts/Designated Receiving Districts
14.2.1 Roads
14.2.2 Open Space
14.2.3 Common Drives/Utility Corridors
14.2.4 Drainage/Recharge Areas
14.2.5 Siting of Buildings/Setbacks
14.3 Planned Development Districts
14.3.1 Land Use/Permitted Uses
14.3.2 Community Participation
14.3.3 Fiscal Impacts
14.3.4 Streets
14.3.5 Parking
14.3.6 Open space
14.3.7 Buildings/Setbacks
14.3.8 General Factors
14.3.8.1 Architecture
14.3.8.2 Signage
14.3.8.3 Lighting
14.3.8.4 Landscape

Appendix 1. Soils Overview
Appendix 2. Ecosystems Overview
Appendix 3. Cultural Resources: Historic and Archaeological
Appendix 4. Scenic Resources
Appendix 5. Physical Data
Appendix 6. Land Protection Strategies
 
 

List of Figures
(Many of these figures are NOT available in this on line "text" version of Volume 2.
For a complete pdf copy of Volume 2 including scans of all illustrations, click here..)

Figure 2-1: Surficial Geology, Hydrogeology of Suffolk County, New York
Figure 2-2: Suffolk County Stratigraphy and Hydrogeologic Units
Figure 2-3: Geologic Cross Sections Through the Central Pine Barrens
Figure 3-1: General Soil Map, Suffolk County, New York
Figure 4-1: Hydrogeologic Cross Section D-D'
Figure 4-2: Glacial Moraines and Basins
Figure 4-3: Hydrogeologic Zones and Groundwater Divides
Figure 4-4: Public Water Supply Wellfields
Figure 5-1: Ecological model of the Central Pine Barrens, Long Island, New York
Figure 5-2: Global and State Ranking for Elements of Rare Communities and Species
Figure 5-3: Pine Barrens Ecological Communities
Figure 5-4: Natural Pine Barrens Communities in Descending Order of State Rarity
Figure 5-5: Occurrences of Rare (S1-S3) Natural Communities in the Central Pine Barrens
Figure 7-1: Prehistoric Chronology for Long Island
Figure 9-1: Central Pine Barrens Population by Town, 1960-1990
Figure 9-2: Central Pine Barrens Population by Town, Percent Increase by Decade, 1960-1990
Figure 9-3: Population in the Core Preservation Area, Compatible Growth Area and the Total Central Pine Barrens by Town, 1990
Figure 9-4: Population Density in the Core Preservation Area, the Compatible Growth Area and the Total Central Pine Barrens by Town, 1990 (Persons Per Square Mile)
Figure 9-5: Central Pine Barrens Housing Units by Town, 1960-1990
Figure 9-6: Housing Units in the Core Preservation Area, Compatible Growth Area and the Total Central Pine Barrens by Town, 1990
Figure 9-7: Public Administrative Bodies in the Central Pine Barrens
Figure 9-8: Top Five Land Use Categories: Acreage and Percent of Total Land Area for Parcels in the Central Pine Barrens
Figure 9-9: Top Five Land Use Categories: Acreage and Percent of Total Land Area for Parcels in the Core Preservation Area
Figure 9-10: Top Five Land Use Categories: Acreage and Percent of Total Land Area for Parcels in the Compatible Growth Area
Figure 9-11: Top Five Land Use Categories: Acreage and Percent of Total Land Area for Parcels in Both the Compatible Growth Area and Core Preservation Area
Figure 9-12: All Land Use Categories: Acreage and Percent of Total Land Area in the Central Pine Barrens for the Core, Compatible Growth Area and Areas in Both the Core and Compatible Growth Areas
Figure 9-13: Acreage of Vacant, Privately Owned Land in the Central Pine Barrens by General Zoning Category
Figure 9-14: Potential Additional Housing Units Under Existing Residential Zoning of Privately Owned Vacant Land
Figure 10-1: Land Acquisitions in Suffolk County by Cumulative Acres & Cumulative Expenditures
Figure 12-1: Summary of Applications Received by the Suffolk County Pine Barrens Review Commission through 1992
Figure 13-1: Landowner Survey Summary: Breakdown By Location of Owner
 
 

Generic Environmental Impact Statement

SEQRA Findings Statement